Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
This technique is used to diagnose and treat the following problems in the oesophagus, stomach or duodenum.
Bleeding ulcers: By injection therapy, Heat (coagulation) or application of clips (Hemoclips)
Bleeding Varices: By application of bands or glue injection
Diffuse mucosal bleeding: By Argon Plasma Coagulation (APC) Inadvertently swallowed foreign bodies like dentures, pins, coins etc.,
Narrowed food pipe, stomach or duodenum: By dilatation using balloons, dilators and metal stents.
Polyps: Polypectomy using electrocautery.
Fluid collections around the stomach (pseudocyst): By Cystogastrostomy
Obstructed food Pipe: Creating alternate pathways for feeding to stomach (PEG) or small intestine (PEG-J)
This enables diagnosis and treatment of the following problems of large bowel: Diagnosis of colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, tuberculosis. Polyps: Removal using electrocautery. Strictures (narrowed segment): by Self Expandable Metal Stents (SEMS) across obstruction.
Used for treatment of diseases of bile duct and pancreas.
Extraction of stones using balloon / basket. Palliating jaundice by placing stent across obstruction Bile duct leaks after surgery by endoscopic sphincterotomy/bile duct stent Bile duct infection by draining bile duct using stents or catheter (NBD) into duodenum.
Pain relief in chronic pancreatitis by removal of stones or placing stent across narrowed pancreatic duct (stricture).
Narrow Band Imaging(NBI)
Used for diagnosis of early cancer of esophagus and stomach.
Non invasive method to evaluate the small bowel. Patient swallows a capsule (wireless camera) which takes 50,000 photographs in 8 hours as it passes through the small intestine. The following diseases can be diagnosed with this technique: Obscure bleeding from small intestine Small bowel ulcers (Crohn's disease, Tuberculosis) Tumours of small bowel.
Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)
This is a technique that combines endoscopy with ultrasonography. EUS can evaluate the tumours of the bowel, the wall and surrounding structures. This technique can be used to study the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, rectum, mediastinum, gall bladder, biliary tract and pancreas.This technique is used for diagnosis of submucosal lesions. Staging of cancers (extent of spread) of esophagus, stomach, rectum, pancreas or major vessels. Diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy (Tuberculosis vs malignancy) and staging of lung cancer. Diagnosis of early chronic pancreatitis, bile duct stones and microlithiasis. Evaluation of management of pseudocyst of the pancreas. Management of abdominal pain in pancreatic cancer.